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CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) Norms Explained!

CAFE or Corporate Average Fuel Economy emission norms are knocking on the door. Simply put, CAFE Norms will be imposed on the entire fleet of a carmaker, not on individual models. Moreover, unlike BS6, which focused on Hydrocarbons, sulfur, and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. CAFE norms are more concerned about Fuel consumption (quantity of fuel consumed).

Also Read: RDE (Real Driving Emissions) Norm To Go Live On 1st April 2023

CAFE also measures the total amount of carbon dioxide emitted.

Delhi Air Pollution | Odd-Even Scheme
Delhi Air Pollution | Odd-Even Scheme

BS6 (Bharat Stage 6 Explained) In Great Detail

Two sets of average fuel usage criteria were introduced in 2014. The first would be mandatory starting in 2017–2018 and would be relatively simple to fulfil. From 2022 to 2023, the second set—what we currently have—was in effect.

Purpose of CAFE regulations

However, it is important to know that fuel efficiency is directly proportionate to the Carbon dioxide emission of a vehicle.

  • The CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency) regulations aim to reduce the overall COx (Carbon Oxides) from the vehicle’s exhaust.
  • The reduced carbon footprint leads to increased fuel economy.
  • These regulations were first implemented on 1st April 2017 with BS4 exhaust emission norms.
  • It was decided the highest carbon footprint allowed was 130gm per km till 2022. After that, the till will be further reduced to 113gm per km.
  • CAFE regulations are in power for all engines. Diesel, Petrol, as well as CNG.

Also Read: BS6 Vs EURO6 | What is the exact difference between the norms?

How is the CO2 Emission Calculated?

In the first step, a manufacturer’s corporate average kerb weight is calculated. A calculation is based on the weight of current individual models and the number of units sold.

After combining all of the models’ CO2 numbers, the final CAFE group target is determined. The average fleet of CO2 emissions in grams per kilometre for each manufacturer is then given.

CAFE & Super Credits

By selling cleaner and greener vehicles, car makers might earn Super Credits. To do this, Battery Electric Cars (BEV), Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs), and Hybrid Electric Vehicles are used (HEV).

Super Credits For Electrified Vehicles
Battery Electric Vehicle (Counted as 3 sold)
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (Counted as 2.5 sold)
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (Counted as 2 sold)
Super Credits For CO2 Reducing Tech
Regenerative braking 0.98
Start-Stop System 0.98
Tyre Pressure Monitoring System 0.98
6 or more speed Transmission 0.98

Why is CAFE important?

Even though CAFE regulations are environment-friendly, how will these norms be fair to Indian automotive manufacturers? The manufacturers have no choice but to follow the norms and regulations. It is the environment we are saving.

When CAFE regulations combine with new BS6 norms, it can result in a drastic reduction in emissions. CAFE majorly focuses on COx emissions. BS6, on the other hand, focuses on overall emissions, which include NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) and SOx (Sulphur Oxides).

Read More: BS6 Emission Norms and The Engines which it Killed

Target CO2
Kerb Weight (Kg) Current CO2 (g/km) Volumes CAFE 1 CAFE 2
Maruti Suzuki 933 114 9,34,826 124 103
Hyundai 1,171 127 4,75,553 138 114
Tata 1,213 128 246,858 140 116
Mahindra 1,675 169 1,48,932 167 138
Toyota 1,584 157 90,557 161 134
Renault 916 123 64,270 128 102
Honda 1049 130 61,406 131 109
Volkswagen Group 1237 138 44,170 142 117
Nissan 989 127 27,965 128 106
MG 1,683 147 26,814 167 139
Stellantis 1,610 166 9,419 168 135
Mercedes 1,766 162 9,083 172 143
BMW 1,712 162 6,488 169 140
Force Motors 1,430 159 827 158 127
Isuzu 2098 192 54 191 158

Data Source: Autocar India

Utkarsh Bhardwaj
Utkarsh Bhardwaj
Technical Content Strategist at GoMechanic | Big Time Petrolhead with the passion for building cars and driving those beauties.


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